Waterproofing of pools and fixing of ceramic tiles

RELATED MATERIALS

AQUAMAT-ELASTIC Two-component, elastic waterproofing slurry

ISOMAT AK-ELASTIC High-performance, two-component elastic tile adhesive C2 E S2

DUROCRET Polymer-modified cement mortar

RAPICRET Fast-setting patching mortar

ADIPLAST Polymer latex for multiple improvements of mortars

PLASTIPROOF Plasticizing/water reducing admixture for concrete

POLYESTER CLOTH FOR WATERPROOFING LAYERS Polyester cloth for reinforcing waterproofing layers

FIBERGLASS MESH Fiberglass mesh for reinforcing waterproofing layers

 

I. NATURE OF THE PROBLEM – REQUIREMENTS

A usual way to prepare the final surface of a swimming pool, is to overlay it with ceramic tiles since this way a long-lasting and aesthetically pleasant effect is produced.

Such a choice affects significantly the selection of the means for waterproofing the pool, since it sets specific requirements for the waterproofing that will be carried out.

So, in this case, the sealing layer is applied under the tiles and must have the following properties:

  • It must provide effective waterproofing.

  • It must be sufficiently elastic, particularly at the bottom of the pool, which is especially subjected to stress from expansions and contractions (mainly due to the influence of solar radiation), when the pool is empty.

  • It
    must be long lasting, because its position, between the pool’s structural
    elements and the layer of ceramic tiles makes future interventions difficult and
    expensive.

  • It must bond strongly to the substrate and resist the probable negative pressure developed (for instance, when the pool is emptied and there is a periodic or permanent water table in the surrounding area).

The tile adhesive that will be chosen must show significant strength and high elasticity and resistance, since it will be continuously subjected to weather effects, to the pool’s water, and to the chemicals that this contains.

The tile grout that will be used must be sufficiently watertight and have significant resistance to the chemical stress evolved from the chemicals added to the pool’s water and from the strong tile cleaners.

II. SOLUTION

It is of primary importance for the pool’s supporting frame to have been calculated correctly, in order to withstand the water’s hydrostatic pressure efficiently.

The requirements for waterproofing the pool can be successfully covered by the application of AQUAMAT-ELASTIC elastic, 2-component brushable sealing slurry to the walls and bottom of the pool. The sealing layer created by using AQUAMAT-ELASTIC provides the following:

  • Effective waterproofing.

  • Strong bonding to the substrate and high resistance.

  • High elasticity.

  • Longtime duration.

  • Resistance even to negative pressures, thus keeping the pool safe from both leaks and water ingress.

Moreover, during the concreting of the pool’s frame, the addition of PLASTIPROOF waterproofing admixture to the concrete in a proportion of 0,2-0,5% of the cement weight is recommended.

Overlaying with ceramic tiles requires the formation of a smooth and stable substrate, on which they will be fixed. Thus, if necessary, the substrate is smoothed by the application of a strong cement mortar.

The tiles are fixed to the walls and bottom of the pool with Isomat® AK-ELASTIC elastic tile adhesive, or with a tile adhesive elastified by the addition of ADIFLEX-B elastifying agent.

It is recommended that the pool tiles are grouted with MULTIFILL-EPOXY THIXO or MULTIFILL-EPOXY FLOW 2-component epoxy tile grout, which provide high resistance to mechanical and chemical stress, as well as water-resistance. MULTIFILL tile grout improved by the addition of DS-99 polymer latex, can be alternatively used for the grouting.


III. APPLICATION

Preparation of the substrate

If there is originally a smooth substrate on the pool’s frame

  1. Thorough cleaning of grease residues, deshuttering agents, dust, loose materials, etc. from the surface.

  2. Loose particles should be cleaned from existing cavities in the concrete.

  3. Form wires and distance pieces should be cut at a depth of 3 cm.

  4. Existing construction joints should be opened in a V-shape, towards the inside, along their entire length, at a depth of 3 cm.

  5. The above areas should be dampened well and filled in with DUROCRET polymer modified cement mortar, or with a cement mortar reinforced with ADIPLAST polymer latex. Alternatively, when fast work is required, filling in can be done with RAPICRET fast-setting patching mortar.
    Consumption of DUROCRET: 25 kg for filling in a surface of 30-40m2 (indicating consumption for a usual concrete wall surface).

  6. The entire surface of the substrate should be dampened well, but without creating any water puddles.

If the pool’s frame has an uneven substrate

In this case, the surface of the pool’s walls and bottom is smoothed by the application of a strong cement mortar. The following work is carried out:

  1. Thorough cleaning of grease residues, deshuttering agents, dust, loose materials, etc. from the surface.

  2. Cutting of form wires and distance pieces from the wall’s surface.

  3. Preparation of a strong cement mortar (cement:sand=1:2,5) with the ancillary addition of ADINOL-DM waterproofing admixture in a proportion of 1% of the cement weight, in order to smoothen the substrate along the pool’s surface, at a thickness of 2-3 cm.
    Application of a bonding layer (spatterdash) reinforced with ADIPLAST polymer latex (cement : sand : ADIPLAST : water = 1 : 1 : 0,25 : 0,25) to the pool’s walls, in order to reinforce the cement mortar’s bonding to them, must take place.
    Application of a bonding layer reinforced with ADIPLAST polymer latex (cement : sand : ADIPLAST : water = 1 : 1 : 0,5 : 0,5) to the bottom of the pool, in order to reinforce the bonding of the cement mortar to it, must take place.

  4. The surface is well dampened, but without creating water puddles.

Waterproofing with AQUAMAT-ELASTIC

  1. The content of the 25 kg bag (component A) of AQUAMAT-ELASTIC is added into the 10 kg of liquid (component B) under continuous stirring, until a uniform viscous mixture is formed, suitable for brush application. A low-revolution mixer (300 rpm) may be used for mixing.

  2. The pool’s walls and bottom should be brushed with 3-4 layers of AQUAMAT-ELASTIC. Each layer should be applied after the previous one has dried. In order to avoid cracking, each layer should not be more than 1 mm thick.
    Consumption: 3-4 kg/m2 in total.
    Along intersections between the walls and the bottom of the pool, it is recommended to reinforce AQUAMAT-ELASTIC with a polyester tape or a fiberglass mess tape approximately 10 cm wide.
    The reinforcing strip should be placed immediately after the first layer of AQUAMAT-ELASTIC is applied and while it is still fresh. After drying of this layer, 2-3 similar layers of AQUAMAT-ELASTIC should follow.

Fixing of ceramic tiles
The ceramic tiles should be fixed to the bottom and walls of the pool with ISOMAT® AK-ELASTIC, 2-component elastic tile adhesive, or alternatively, with other adhesives mentioned at ISOMAT tile installation system, as they are described in the “INSTALLATION GUIDE FOR CERAMIC TILES, MARBLES AND GRANITES”.

Tile grouting
It is recommended that the pool tiles are grouted with MULTIFILL-EPOXY THIXO or MULTIFILL-EPOXY FLOW epoxy tile grouts for the walls and the floor of the pool respectively. Alternatively MULTIFILL tile grout improved by the addition of DS-99 polymer latex can be used for grouting.

IV. REMARKS

  • Temperature during the application should be between +50C and +350C.

  • The minimum hardening temperature of MULTIFILL-EPOXY THIXO and MULTIFILL-EPOXY FLOW is +100C.

  • Consult the instructions for safe use and precautions written on the packaging.

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